Validation of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form in a Flemish Community Sample.
Pauwels, Els ; Dierckx, Eva ; Smits, Dirk ; Janssen, Rianne ; Claes, Laurence
Psychol Belg; 2018; Vol. 58; iss. 1; pp. 34 - 50
The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ, Young, 1994) was developed to assess Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS), which account for the dysfunctional beliefs in individuals with personality disorders or maladaptive personality traits. This study aims to investigate the factor structure, the reliability and the validity of the original YSQ - Short Form (Young & Brown, 1998; YSQ-SF, 15 EMS) as well as an extension including 16 EMS, based on the 16 factor structure of the YSQL2 (Young & Brown, 1998) in a community sample. The sample consisted of 672 participants (51% females; Mage-total = 44.34; SDage-total = 16.24). Results show evidence for both the 15 and 16 factor solution of the YSQ-SF with good internal consistency coefficients for the different scales. Significant gender differences were observed for Self-Sacrifice (females higher) and Entitlement (men higher), along with different patterns of correlations between age and Insufficient Self-Control (r = -.19), Enmeshment (r = -0.16) and Self-Sacrifice (r = .13). Furthermore, Big Five personality traits were significantly associated with several schema scales. In sum, we can conclude that both the YSQ-SF15 and 16 are valid instruments to assess EMS among a Flemish community sample. However, given the unique additive value of the 16th EMS (Social Undesirability) in predicting lower scores on Extraversion and Openness, the use of the YSQ-SF16 could be favored.
The Dutch Self-Concept and Identity Measure (SCIM): Factor structure and I associations with identity dimensions and psychopathology
The validation of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in a Flemish Non-Clinical and Clinical Sample, and the relation of PID-5 Psychoticism to psychosis
Summary The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) is a self-report questionnaire that originates from the preparatory work of the DSM-5 Task Force, aligning the classical DSM-IV-TR personality categories with a dimensional representation of personality pathology. Inspired by the non-clinical Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992), its 25 primary scales have been reported to group into five higher order factors, each representing a pathological version of the classic five personality dimensions (i.e., Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Openness). The present PhD thesis contributes to the ongoing PID-5 research by investigating the merits of the PID-5 in a clinical population and its advantages over the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ; Livesley & Jackson, 2009) as a representative of the pathological four dimensional model (Openness not included). Indeed, whereas earlier studies have found solid pathological equivalents for four out of five of the classical Big Five personality dimensions, an unequivocal pathological version of the fifth personality dimension Openness, i.e. Psychoticism, remains subject of ongoing research. Also, the conceptual relationship between Psychoticism as a personality factor, syndromal psychosis and cognitive biases as an at-risk factor for syndromal psychosis warrants further investigation. In the present PhD thesis we will start from a separate psychometric evaluation of each of the new instruments that will be used in addressing our research questions. This will include the psychometric evaluation of the PID-5 itself, as well as the psychometric evaluation of the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS; van der Gaag et al., in press), an instrument measuring cognitive biases as a mediating personality trait in the development of syndromal psychosis. Thereafter, we will focus on the incremental validity of the fifth personality dimension Psychoticism (above and beyond the four other personality traits) in the prediction of (1) psychopathology in general, and (2) psychosis in particular, and on its conceptual relationship with cognitive biases as an at-risk factor for syndromal psychosis.
Do radiographers base the diagnostic acceptability of a radiograph on anatomical structures?
Medical Imaging 2018: Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment; 2018; iss. 10577
Self-reported cognitive biases are equally present in patients diagnosed with psychotic versus non-psychotic disorders
Bastiaens, Tim ; Claes, Laurence ; Smits, Dirk ; Van Walleghem, D ; De Hert, Marc
Williams & Wilkins
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease; 2018; Vol. 206; iss. 2; pp. 122 - 129
We investigated the relation between subjective cognitive biases measured with the Dutch Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases (DACOBS-NL) and (1) the presence of a psychotic versus nonpsychotic psychiatric disorder, (2) the current dose of antipsychotic medication and current psychotic symptoms, and (3) the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) Psychoticism personality trait. Results showed that DACOBS-NL subjective cognitive biases (1) were equally present in patients diagnosed with nonpsychotic disorders compared with patients with a psychotic disorder, (2) could not be explained by the current dose of antipsychotic medication, nor by current psychotic symptoms, and (3) significantly correlated with all PID-5 Personality domains. Moreover, in predicting membership of the psychotic versus nonpsychotic psychiatric disorder group, the addition of the PID-5 domains in step 2 rendered the contribution of the DACOBS-NL subjective cognitive biases in step 1 nonsignificant. Further research is needed to clarify the interplay between cognitive biases and aberrant salience in the prediction of psychotic disorders.
Lifetime Self-Harm Behaviors Are Not More Prevalent in Bariatric Surgery Candidates than in Community Controls with Obesity
Mueller, Astrid ; Claes, Laurence ; Smits, Dirk ; Schag, Kathrin ; de Zwaan, Martina
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at investigating the lifetime prevalence of 22 self-harm behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates (pre-bariatric surgery group; PSG) compared to community controls with obesity (obese community group; OCG). METHODS: The Self-Harm Inventory (SHI) was administered to the PSG (n = 139, BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) and to the OCG (n = 122, BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2). RESULTS: Group comparison of cumulative SHI scores indicated a trend towards less endorsed SHI items in the PSG compared to the OCG (medianPSG = 1.00, IQRPSG = 2.00, medianOCG = 1.00, IQROCG = 2.25, U = 7.241, p = 0.033, η2 = 0.02). No significant group differences were found with regard to the rate of suicide attempts (12.4% vs. 9.4% for OCG vs. PSG). At least one type of lifetime self-harm behavior was admitted by 51.8% of the PSG and 63.9% of the OCG (χ2(1) = 3.91, p = 0.048). The results of logistic regressions using Firth's bias reduction method with at least one SHI item endorsed as dependent variable, group as categorical predictor (PSG as baseline), and age or BMI or PHQ-4 as continuous control variable indicated that only PHQ-4 had a positive effect on the odds ratio. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that self-harm (including suicidal attempts) is not more prevalent in bariatric surgery candidates than in community control participants with obesity. Further studies are needed to investigate self-harm in bariatric surgery patients, prior and following surgery, compared to non-operated patients with obesity.
The Relationship Between the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Psychotic Disorder in a Clinical Sample.
Bastiaens, Tim ; Smits, Dirk ; De Hert, Marc ; Thys, Erik ; Bryon, Hendrik ; Sweers, Kim ; Teugels, Teresa ; Van Looy, Joeri ; Verwerft, Tim ; Vanwalleghem, Dominique ; Van Bouwel, Ludi ; Claes, Laurence
Assessment; 2017; pp. 1073191117693922 -
Recent studies have successfully investigated the validity of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders. In a final sample of 174 psychiatric patients, the present study examined the relationship between the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and syndromal psychosis. Results showed that patients diagnosed with versus without a psychotic disorder significantly differed on all PID-5 domains except Antagonism. Discriminant function analysis indicated that lower Detachment, lower Negative Affect, lower Disinhibition, and higher Psychoticism best discriminated patients with a psychotic disorder from patients with other psychiatric conditions. Subsequent stepwise discriminant analysis on all facet scales of the contributing PID-5 domains revealed that higher Unusual Beliefs, lower Depressivity, and lower Distractibility contributed the most to this differentiation. PID-5 Psychoticism scores showed moderate correlations with current psychotic symptoms and were not influenced by dose of antipsychotic medication. Our results support the ability of the PID-5 to discriminate between patients with and without psychotic disorder.
Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Harm in the German General Population
Mueller, Astrid ; Claes, Laurence ; Smits, Dirk ; Braehler, Elmar ; de Zwaan, Martina
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
PLoS One; 2016; Vol. 11; iss. 6; pp. -
The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more depth.
Validation of the German version of the Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire/Social Comfort Questionnaire in adult burn survivors
Mueller, Astrid ; Smits, Dirk ; Claes, Laurence ; Jasper, Stefanie ; Berg, Lea ; Ipaktchi, Ramin ; Vogt, Peter M ; de Zwaan, Martina
Burns; 2016; Vol. 42; iss. 4; pp. 790 - 796
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the German version of the Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire/Social Comfort Questionnaire (PSQ/SCQ) in burn victims. METHODS: The PSQ/SCQ was answered by 139 adult burn survivors (age M=49.69, SD=15.16 years). Factor structure was examined using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Validity was investigated through correlations between the PSQ/SCQ scales and questionnaires assessing perceived social support, burn-specific health-related quality of life, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and percent of total body surface area (TBSA) burned. Additionally, the link between perceived stigmatization/social comfort and current partnership status was investigated. RESULTS: The four-factor model showed the best fit to the data with three PSQ factors (Absence of Friendly Behavior, Confused/Staring Behavior, and Hostile Behavior) and one single SCQ factor. All PSQ/SCQ scales showed good internal consistency. Higher PSQ/lower SCQ means were related to less perceived social support, less burn-specific quality of life, and more symptoms of anxiety/depression. With the exception of a positive correlation with the PSQ subscale Confused Behavior and Staring, no other significant correlations were found between the PSQ/SCQ subscales and TBSA burned. While PSQ/SCQ scores were not linked to age or gender, less perceived social stigmatization/more social comfort was reported by participants who were currently living with a partner. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a four-factor structure and a good validity of the PSQ/SCQ which is in line with prior research. Further studies should investigate the application of the PSQ/SCQ in individuals with appearance distinctions that are not related to burns.
DSM-5 section III personality traits and section II personality disorders in a Flemish community sample
Bastiaens, Tim ; Smits, Dirk ; De Hert, Marc ; Vanwalleghem, Dominique ; Claes, Laurence
Psychiatry Research; 2016; Vol. 238; pp. 290 - 298
The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) is a dimensional self-report questionnaire designed to measure personality pathology according to the criterion B of the DSM-5 Section III personality model. In the current issue of DSM, this dimensional Section III personality model co-exists with the Section II categorical personality model derived from DSM-IV-TR. Therefore, investigation of the inter-relatedness of both models across populations and languages is warranted. In this study, we first examined the factor structure and reliability of the PID-5 in a Flemish community sample (N=509) by means of exploratory structural equation modeling and alpha coefficients. Next, we investigated the predictive ability of section III personality traits in relation to section II personality disorders through correlations and stepwise regression analyses. Results revealed a five factor solution for the PID-5, with adequate reliability of the facet scales. The variance in Section II personality disorders could be predicted by their theoretically comprising Section III personality traits, but additional Section III personality traits augmented this prediction. Based on current results, we discuss the Section II personality disorder conceptualization and the Section III personality disorder operationalization.
The Construct Validity of the Dutch Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Personality Disorders (PID-5) in a Clinical Sample
Bastiaens, Tim ; Claes, Laurence ; Smits, Dirk ; De Clercq, Barbara ; De Fruyt, Filip ; Rossi, Gina ; Vanwalleghem, Dominique ; Vermote, Rudi ; Lowyck, Benedicte ; Claes, Stephan ; De Hert, Marc
Assessment; 2016; Vol. 23; iss. 1; pp. 42 - 51
The factor structure and the convergent validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), a self-report questionnaire designed to measure personality pathology as advocated in the fifth edition, Section III of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), are already demonstrated in general population samples, but need replication in clinical samples. In 240 Flemish inpatients, we examined the factor structure of the PID-5 by means of exploratory structural equation modeling. Additionally, we investigated differences in PID-5 higher order domain scores according to gender, age and educational level, and explored convergent and discriminant validity by relating the PID-5 with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire and by comparing PID-5 scores of inpatients with and without a DSM-IV categorical personality disorder diagnosis. Our results confirmed the original five-factor structure of the PID-5. The reliability and the convergent and discriminant validity of the PID-5 proved to be adequate. Implications for future research are discussed.
Variability amongst radiographers in the categorization of clinical acceptability for digital trauma radiography
Decoster, Robin ; Toomey, Rachel ; Smits, Dirk ; Mol, Harrie ; Verhelle, Filip ; Butler, Marie-Louise
Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
MEDICAL IMAGING 2016: IMAGE PERCEPTION, OBSERVER PERFORMANCE, AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; 2016; Vol. 9787; pp. -
In april 2014 verscheen bij testuitgeverij Boom de Nederlandse vertaling van de vijfde editie van de Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013; APA/Nederlandse Vereniging voor Psychiatrie [NVvP], 2014), met daarin twee onderdelen (Sectie II/Sectie III) over persoonlijkheidsstoornissen. In deze bijdrage bespreken we de belangrijkste veranderingen in de classificatie van persoonlijkheidsstoornissen ten opzichte van DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000). Ook blikken we kort vooruit op toekomstige ontwikkelingen binnen het internationale en Nederlandse taalgebied.
Validation of the German version of the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B)
Mueller, Astrid ; Smits, Dirk ; Jasper, Stefanie ; Berg, Lea ; Claes, Laurence ; Ipaktchi, Ramin ; Vogt, Peter M ; de Zwaan, Martina
Burns; 2015; Vol. 41; iss. 6; pp. 1333 - 1339
BACKGROUND: The Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief (BSHS-B) is recognized as a valid self-rating scale to evaluate quality of life after burn. AIM: To validate the translated German version of the BSHS-B. METHOD: One hundred and forty one burn survivors (65.2% men) with a mean age of 49.62 years (SD=15.16) and a mean duration after burn of 45.01 months (SD=26.18) answered the BSHS-B. Factor structure was tested by using confirmatory factor analysis, reliability (internal consistency) of the scales was determined by means of Cronbach's α. Construct validity was explored through correlations between the BSHS-B and the Short-Form 8 Health Survey (SF-8). In addition, the know-groups technique was used to determine to which degree the BSHS-B discriminates between patients with low and high burn severity based on the abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to examine criterion validity. RESULTS: The nine BSHS-B subscales showed good internal consistency. A second-order confirmatory factor analysis revealed the following main components: (1) Affect and Relationship, (2) Function and (3) Skin Involvement. The second-order factors were positively correlated with the SF-8 and negatively correlated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Patients with low ABSI scored higher on all three BSHS-B domains than those with high ABSI. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate good psychometric properties of the German BSHS-B. Further studies are needed to investigate the utility of the questionnaire in clinical routine practice, evaluation of burn management programs, and burn-specific research.
Clinicians' Attitudes Towards Outcome and Process Monitoring: A Validation of the Outcome Measurement Questionnaire
Smits, Dave F ; Claes, Laurence ; Stinckens, Nele ; Smits, Dirk JM
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research; 2015; Vol. 42; iss. 5; pp. 634 - 641
Valid and reliable instruments to measure monitoring attitudes of clinicians are scarce. The influence of sociodemographics and professional characteristics on monitoring attitudes is largely unknown. First, we investigated the factor structure and reliability of the Outcome Measurement Questionnaire among a sample of Flemish mental health professionals (n = 170). Next, we examined the relationship between clinicians' sociodemographic and professional characteristics and monitoring attitudes. Construct validity was determined using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was ascertained using Cronbach's alpha. Mean level differences in monitoring attitudes related to clinicians' gender, work setting, level of education and psychotherapeutic training, were investigated using ANOVAs. The relationships between clinicians' age, clinical experience and attitudes were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A model with one general factor and a method factor referring to reverse-worded items best fitted our data. Internal consistency was good. Clinicians with psychotherapeutic training reported more favorable monitoring attitudes than those without such training. Compared to clinicians working in subsidized outpatient services, private practitioners and clinicians from inpatient mental health clinics had more positive attitudes. Results highlight the need for sustained and targeted training, with particular focus on transforming measurement data into meaningful clinical support tools.
Psychometric Properties of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale of Hewitt in a Dutch-Speaking Sample: Associations With the Big Five Personality Traits
Journal of Personality Assessment; 2015; Vol. 97; iss. 2; pp. 182 - 190
We administered the Dutch Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale of Hewitt and Flett (1991, 2004) in a large student sample (N = 959) and performed a confirmatory factor analysis to test the factorial structure proposed by the original authors. The existence of a method factor referring to the negatively keyed items in the questionnaire was investigated by including it in the tested models. Next, we investigated how the 3 perfectionism dimensions are associated with the Five-factor model (FFM) of personality. The 3-factor structure originally observed by the authors was confirmed, at least when a method factor that refers to the negatively keyed items was included in the model. Self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism were both distinguished by low extraversion and low emotional stability. Self-oriented perfectionism's positive relationship with both conscientiousness and openness to experience differentiated the 2 perfectionism dimensions from each other. Other-oriented perfectionism was not well-characterized by the Big Five personality traits.
The Relationship Between Parental Expressed Emotions and Non-suicidal Self-injury: The Mediating Roles of Self-criticism and Depression
Baetens, Imke ; Claes, Laurence ; Hasking, Penelope ; Smits, Dirk ; Grietens, Hans ; Onghena, Patrick ; Martin, Graham
Journal of Child and Family Studies; 2015; Vol. 24; iss. 2; pp. 491 - 498
Controversy remains on the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form (WAI-S). In the present study we first examined the factor structure and reliability of WAI-S scores in a sample of 557 Flemish mental health consumers. Subsequently, we investigated the relationship between early alliance quality and client's psychological dysfunctioning (symptomatic distress, interpersonal functioning and personality pathology). Participants completed the Outcome Questionnaire and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form at start of treatment. The WAI-S was completed after the third treatment session. The structure of the WAI-S was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Four different factor models were compared. Internal consistencies of the scales were ascertained using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Pearson correlations were calculated to determine the relationships between alliance ratings and the independent variables. CFA resulted in a two-factor model, with a Bond component (Contact) and a Task-Goal (Contract) component. Reliability of the WAI-S subscale scores proved to be very good. Symptomatic distress, interpersonal dysfunctioning and personality traits were associated to the Contract component of the alliance, but not to the Contact component. Clinical implications, limitations and suggestions for further research are formulated.
Het woud der verwachtingen
Thema: Tijdschrift voor Hoger Onderwijs en Management; 2014; Vol. 2014; iss. 5; pp. 49 - 53
De hogescholen in Vlaanderen hebben de opdracht om ‘praktijkgericht onderzoek’ te doen. Hoe kun je dat het beste financieren? Dirk Smits inventariseert de huidige praktijk en doet aanbevelingen voor de toekomst. ‘Doordat de interne middelen sterk onder druk staan, blijft een deel van het potentieel van het praktijkgericht onderzoek momenteel onderbenut.’
Kwantitatief en kwalitatief onderzoek: Een inleiding in belangrijke concepten: Statistiek in woorden
We starten met een overzicht van verschillen tussen kwantitatief en kwalitatief onderzoek. Vervolgens worden een aantal belangrijke concepten uit beide onderzoeksbenaderingen besproken vanuit een helicopterperspectief. Doel is dat je na de sessie een gemotiveerde keuze kan maken tussen beide benaderingen afhankelijk van je onderzoeksvraag.
Kenmerken van een goede onderzoeksvraag
Smits, Dirk ; De Meester, Kurt ; Dieussaert, Kristien
Een onderzoek begint met een idee. Maar hoe kom je tot een onderzoeksidee? Hoe vertaal je het oorspronkelijk idee in een onderzoeksvraag. De onderzoeksvraag heeft richting aan en is tegelijk de toetssteen voor je onderzoeksproces. In deze sessie lichten we onderzoeksidee, aanleiding, doelstelling, probleemstelling en uiteindelijke onderzoeksvraag toe.
The Dutch Version of the Emotion Reactivity Scale Validation and Relation with Various Behaviors in a Sample of High School Students